This Day in History

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Friday, April 18, 1975

Oliver Martin Kraas was born on 18 April 1975 in Germiston, Gauteng.[i] Oliver is a South African Cross Country skier.[ii] He started competitive skiing in 2003.[iii] He finished 57th in the inpidual sprint event at Turin in 2006.[iv] Oliver became the first South African to compete in a Nordic event in 2006, even though he was unable to

This article was produced for South African History Online on 22-Jan-2018

This Day in History Extra Dates
  • Monday, April 18, 2005
    At the celebrations of twenty-five years of independence of Zimbabwe, Pres. Mugabe, who has led his country for the past twenty-five years, defends his land reform programme launched five years ago that saw some 4 000 commercial farms seized and handed over to landless Blacks. Mugabe's Zanu-PF party won elections last month that the opposition said were rigged while the United States, Britain and other western governments declared that the parliamentary vote was neither free nor fair.
    References:

  • Saturday, April 18, 1998
    Stoffel Botha (68), Minister of Interior Affairs and Post and Telecommunication in the previous government, dies in Howick of heart failure.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Saturday, April 18, 1998
    Ebrahim Rasool is elected as chairman of the ANC in the Western Cape.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Thursday, April 18, 1996
    Seventeen Greek tourists and an Egyptian tour guide are killed by gunmen in Cairo. Another fifteen are injured, three critically, when the attackers open fire on a group outside the Europa Hotel.
  • Friday, April 18, 1997
    Hundreds of Zairians riot against Rwandan refugees, looting food intended for them.
    References:

  • Monday, April 18, 1994
    Ken Oosterbroek, photographer for The Star, is killed when he and several other journalists are caught in the crossfire while covering a battle between the National Peacekeeping force and pro-Inkatha hostel dwellers in Thokoza township.
    References:

  • Sunday, April 18, 1993
    Gunmen driving through the area and firing randomly kill nineteen residents in Sebokeng.
    References:
    • Coleman, M. (ed)(1998). A Crime Against Humanity: analysing the repression of the apartheid state, Johannesburg: Human Rights Committee.

  • Thursday, April 18, 1991
    State President F.W. de Klerk announces plans for a two day multi-party conference and the establishment of a standing commission of inquiry to investigate combat and identify the perpetrators of politically inspired violence and intimidation.
    References:
    • Meer, F. (ed)(1993). The Codesa file. Durban: Madiba Publishers, p. 318

  • Friday, April 18, 1986
    Angry crowds protest outside American embassies throughout the world as backlash continues against US attack on Libya.
    References:

  • Wednesday, April 18, 1990
    In a parliamentary speech, President de Klerk rules out any possibility of Black majority rule.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Wednesday, April 18, 1990
    President F.W. de Klerk announces the establishment of a Commission of Inquiry, led by Justice Richard Goldstone, into the police killing of seventeen peaceful demonstrators at the township of Sebokeng.

  • Friday, April 18, 1986
    Two people are killed in a bomb explosion in the Wild Coast Sun Casino in the Transkei.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Sunday, April 18, 1982
    Capital of Zimbabwe is renamed Harare (old name was Salisbury).
  • Saturday, April 18, 1981
    Rebels opposed to the Marxist Government of Mozambique claim responsibility today for cutting power lines from the Cabora Bassa dam to South Africa, Mozambique's biggest source of foreign income. Evo Fernandes, European spokesman for the Mozambican National Resistance, says the guerrillas cut the lines a week ago.
  • Friday, April 18, 1980
    Rhodesia gains independence after ninety years as a British colony, taking the new name Zimbabwe. The 1972-1979 war of independence between nationalist blacks and the minority white regime led by Ian Smith leaves 27 000 dead. Robert Mugabe, head of Zimbabwe African National Union (Zanu), takes power as prime minister, Dr Canaan Banana president and Joshua Nkomo, head of the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (Zapu), Mugabe's partner in the armed struggle, becomes minister of the interior.
    References:
    • Bute, E.L. & Harmer, H.J.P. (1997). The Black Handbook, London: Cassell.
    •  http://www.news24.com
    •  http://africanhistory.about.com/

  • Tuesday, April 18, 1972
    Haile Gebrselassie, long distance Ethiopian athlete and the first to run the 5 000 m in less than thirteen minutes and the 10 000 m in less than twenty-seven minutes, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Monday, April 18, 1977
    Adolph Jentsch (88), landscape painter of Namibia, dies.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Sunday, April 18, 1971
    Libya joins the United Arab Republic (Egypt, Iraq, and Syria) to form a Federation of Arab Republics.
  • Saturday, April 18, 1964
    Dr. N.E. Alexander and four others are found guilty of sabotage and are sentenced to ten years imprisonment.
    References:
    • Kalley, J.A.; Schoeman, E. & Andor, L.E. (eds)(1999). Southern African Political History: a chronology of key political events from independence to mid-1997, Westport: Greenwood.

  • Sunday, April 18, 1965
    Uganda becomes first non-communist nation to formally denounce US involvement in Vietnam.
    References:

  • Tuesday, April 18, 1961
    In return for the release of Jomo Kenyatta, the Kenyan African National Union (ZANU) agrees to take part in negotiations for governmental reform.
  • Monday, April 18, 1960
    Phambili Ka Ntloko, prominent member of AZAPO and elected national organiser of the movement in 1985, is born in Cape Town.
    References:
    • Gastrow: Who's Who in South African Politics, nr 2

  • Thursday, April 18, 1946
    The League of Nations is officially dissolved in Geneva, Switzerland.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  http://www.news24.co.za

  • Tuesday, April 18, 1950
    Destour (nationalist movement) Party's independence demands are announced by Habib Ali Bourguiba in Tunisia.
  • Sunday, April 18, 1954
    For a second time, Nasser takes presidency away from Naguib.
  • Monday, April 18, 1938
    Andreas Jacobus (Kat) Liebenberg, former head of the SA Defence Force, is born.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Sunday, April 18, 1926
    French and Spanish representatives meet with Riff envoys but fail to reach an armistice agreement.
  • Tuesday, April 18, 1815
    John Bird, civil servant, scholar and the father of historical study in Natal, is born in Rondebosch, Cape.  
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v.2, p. 336.

  • Saturday, April 18, 1874
    David Livingstone, Scottish explorer and missionary who died of malaria on 1.5.1873 on the shore of Lake Bangweulu, is buried in Westminster Abbey.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  Potgieter, D.J. et al. (eds)(1970). Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa, Cape Town: NASOU, v. 7, p. 4

  • Wednesday, April 18, 1883
    The corner stone of the 'Nieuwe Kerk' of the Dutch Reformed Church in Cape Town is laid. The church has been demolished since.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Tuesday, April 18, 1905
    Death of Enoch Sontonga, author of Nkosi Sikelel 'iAfrika.
    References:

  • Friday, April 18, 1862
    The 'Volksraad' of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek suspends Stephanus Schoeman as acting state president because of neglect of duty.   W.C.J. van Rensburg is unanimously elected as acting president.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau
    •  ---, (2005). 'Pretoria 1855-2005: Chronologie 1798-1935', Bylaag tot Rekord

  • Thursday, April 18, 1658
    The first school is founded six years after Van Riebeeck's arrival at the Cape, with sick-comforter Willem Wijland as religious instructor.
    References:
    • Wallis, F. (2000). Nuusdagboek: feite en fratse oor 1000 jaar, Kaapstad: Human & Rousseau

  • Monday, April 18, 2011
    Zimbabwe Day of independence.